Understand 1st year medicine

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Contents of Carotid Sheath

Deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle
Medial to lateral: common carotid artery anterior (medial), vagus nerve, internal jugular vein (lateral)

 


 

 

Jugular Veins

Note that the jugular venous pulse is found between heads of the sternocleidomastoid (clavicular head and sternal head). It can go all the way up to the ears!

 

Scalp layers




External carotid artery branches:
Some Anatomists Like f****, Others Prefer S & M
Superior thyroid, ascending paryngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, maxillary, superficial temporal

Common Carotid Artery (CCA): Bifurcates at C4 level

Carotid body - chemoreceptor in CCA bifurcation (smelly body - chemicals)
Carotid sinus - Baroreceptor in proximal ICA (sinus - heavy - pressure) [internal carotid artery]

Both carotid body and carotid sinus are innervated by GLOSSPHARYNGEAL nerve (CN9)

 

Branches of right brachiocephalic artery: Right subclavian, Right Common carotid, vertebral, thyrocervical
 

 

Interosseous muscles


DAB PAD - Dorsal interosseus ABducts, Palmar interosseus ADducts

 

Veins in Cubital fossa




Cubital fossa contents "N-MAN":

From lateral to medial: Radial Nerve, biceps Muscle tendon, brachial Artery, median Nerve.

 

Serratus anterior

Innervated by long Thoracic nerve (LTN)
c5-6-7 raise your arms to heaven

Larynx cartilages: HTC

Hyoid, thyroid, cricoid, and ofcourse, epiglottis

Knees posture
Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together.
Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var, so knees are far apart.


Deep tendon reflex

 One, two-- buckle my shoe. Three, four-- kick the door. Five, six-- pick up sticks. Seven, -- shut the gate.

  • S1,2 = ankle jerk L3,4 = knee jerk C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis C7,8 = triceps

 

 Respiratory tract

 

Pharynx: Digestive system
Larynx: Respiratory system

Conducting Zone
Respiratory Zone


Cilia

Smooth muscle

Cartilage

Extras

Trachea

Y

Y

Y – C-shaped (except cricoid - complete)

Submucosal seromucous gland

Bronchi

Y

Y

Y – Plates

Submucosal seromucous gland

Bronchiole

Y

Y

N


Respiratory Bronchiole

Y

Y

N


Alveolar Duct

N

Y

N


Alveolar Sac

N

N

N


Alveolar

N

N

N

Alveolar macrophage, type I (squamous) and II (surfactant) pneumocyte


  • Conducting zone: Warm and moisten air
  • Respiratory zone: Gas exchange

 

 Epithelial change

  • Trachea: Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
  • Bronchiole: Simple columnar -> Simple cuboidal
  • Alveoli: Simple squamous


Neck triangles

Anterior triangle - bordered by the anterior border of the SCM (sternocleidomastoid), midline of the neck, and the mandible.

Posterior triangle - bordered by the posterior border of the SCM, trapezius, and clavicle